Keith Treschman published this article in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics in 2021


Even though the longest day occurs on the June solstice everywhere in the Northern Hemisphere, this is NOT the day of earliest sunrise and latest sunset. Similarly, the shortest day at the December solstice in not the day of latest sunrise and earliest sunset. An analysis combines the vertical change of the position of the Sun due to the tilt of Earth’s axis with the horizontal change which depends on the two factors of an elliptical orbit and the axial tilt. The result is an analemma which shows the position of the noon Sun in the sky. This position is changed into a time at the meridian before or after noon, and this is referred to as the equation of time. Next, a way of determining the time between a rising Sun and its passage across the meridian (equivalent to the meridian to the setting Sun) is shown for a particular latitude. This is then applied to calculate how many days before or after the solstices does the earliest and latest sunrise as well as the latest and earliest sunset occur. These figures are derived for 60 cities in the USA. The selection was initially based on the most populous urban areas but was extended to ensure that each of the 50 states has a representative city.


Treschman, Keith & John, Keith. (2021). Calculation of Solar Motion for Localities in the USA. American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 9. 1-7. 10.11648/j.ajaa.20210901.11.

Link to Publication